Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Composition

The leaves contain:

  • Caffeic acid
  • Carnosic acid
  • Carnosol
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Fumaric acid
  • Rosmarinic acid
  • Ursolic acid
  • Ursonic acid

The essential oil contains:

  • Borneol
  • Cineole
  • Thujone

Healing Properties

  • Anti-diabetic: Improves insulin sensitivity[1]
  • Anti-fungal: (antifungal)
  • Antiinflammatory: Reduces inflammation as judged by plasma cytokines.[1]
    • Prevents inflammation from high fat diet-induced obesity.
  • Anti-obesity: Inhibits lipogenesis (the metabolic formation of fat).[1]
  • Antioxidant: free radical scavenging ability.

Disease / Symptom Treatment

  • Neurodegenerative Diseases:
    • Alzheimer's Disease: Salvia officinalis extract showed a potential effect on cognitive functions and reduced the incidence of agitation among Alzheimer's patients.[2]
  • Cancer:
    • Breast Cancer: A relatively strong effect against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) was observed for the S. officinalis extract.[3]
  • Diabetes: Sage presents an alternative to pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diabetes.[1]
    • Prevents insulin resistance[1]
  • Leukemia: Salvia officinalis extract showed remarkable cytotoxic effect toward human T-lymphoblast leukemia and adriamycin resistant leukemia.[3]

Sources

  1. Title: Preventive effects of Salvia officinalis leaf extract on insulin resistance and inflammation in a model of high fat diet-induced obesity in mice that responds to rosiglitazone
    Author(s): Mohamed R. Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R.S. Arch, David C. Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T. Wargent, Małgorzata A. Kępczyńska, Mohamed S. Zaibi​
    Institution(s): Biochemistry Department, Research Laboratory ‘Nutrition—Functional Food & Vascular Health’, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia, Buckingham Institute for Translational Medicine (BITM), Clore Laboratory, University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom, Medical School, University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom
    Publication: PeerJ
    Date: 2018-01-09
    Abstract: Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, Antiinflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg−1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg−1/day bid), as a positive control. Energy expenditure, food intake, body weight, fat mass, liver glycogen and lipid content were evaluated. Blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, lipids leptin and pro- and Antiinflammatory cytokines were measured throughout the experiment. The effects of sage MetOH extract on lipolysis and lipogenesis were tested in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: After two weeks of treatment, the lower dose of sage MetOH extract decreased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). An insulin tolerance test (ITT), performed at day 29 confirmed that sage improved insulin sensitivity. Groups treated with low dose sage and rosiglitazone showed very similar effects on OGTT and ITT. Sage also improved HOMA-IR, triglycerides and NEFA. Treatment with the low dose increased the plasma levels of the Antiinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 and reduced the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, TNF-α, and KC/GRO. The GC analysis revealed the presence of two PPARs agonist in sage MetOH extract. In vitro, the extract reduced in a dose-related manner the accumulation of lipid droplets; however no effect on lipolysis was observed. Conclusions: Sage MetOH extract at low dose exhibits similar effects to rosiglitazone. It improves insulin sensitivity, inhibits lipogenesis in adipocytes and reduces inflammation as judged by plasma cytokines. Sage presents an alternative to pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diabetes and associated inflammation.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  2. Title: Neuropharmacology of Lavender, Rosemary and Salvia
    Author(s): Amritpal Singh Saroya, Jaswinder Singh
    Institution(s): Herbal Consultant Mohali, India; Department of PharmacologySri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Science Amritsar, India
    Publication: Pharmacotherapeutic Potential of Natural Products in Neurological Disorders
    Date: 20 June 2018
    Abstract: English lavender and true lavender are common names of L. officinalis. The plant belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  3. Title: Bioactivity of Three Salvia Species in Relation to Their Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents
    Author(s): Farukh Sharopov, Abdujabbor Valiev, Mansour Sobeh, Eva Arnold, Michael Winka
    Institution(s): Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology Heidelberg University Heidelberg Germany; Department of Pharmaceutical TechnologyAvicenna Tajik State Medical University Dushanbe Tajikistan
    Publication: Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal
    Date: 31 October 2018
    Abstract: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol extracts of three Salvia species including Salvia discolor, S. officinalis and S. sclarea were investigated. The compositions of extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV-DAD detector. The major component of extracts from aerial parts of Salvia species was rosmarinic acid (0.2 – 61.1%). The composition of methanol extract from aerial parts strongly differed from that of the root extract. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents per 100 g fresh weight ranged within 658.3 – 1805.9 mg of caffeic acid equivalent (CAE) and 13.0 – 184.9 mg of quercetin equivalent (QE), respectively. The highest DPPH• radical scavenging effect was observed for S. sclarea extract (with an IC50 of 21.6 μg/mL), while S. discolour extract exhibited the highest ABTS•+ radical scavenging ability (with IC50 of 53.0 μg/mL) among all extracts. All Salvia extracts showed remarkable cytotoxic effect toward human T-lymphoblast leukemia (CCRF-CEM) and adriamycin resistant leukemia (CEM/ADR 5000) with average IC50 values of 25.3 – 65 μg/mL and 34.5 – 89.8 μg/mL, respectively. A relatively strong effect against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) was observed for the S. officinalis extract, with an IC50 of 138.5 μg/mL.
    Link: Source
    Citations: