- Antioxidant: Free radical scavenging.
- Brain Health: the polyphenols and other phytochemicals contained in blueberries can be detected all throughout the brain.
- Anti-glycation: Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ).
- Brain Plasticity: modulates synaptic plasticity.
- Improves cognition: (Prevents cognitive decline) Extract from grape & blueberry attenuates cognitive decline and improves neuronal function.
- Microglial Neuroprotective: Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. Microglia act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system.
- Polyphenol & anthocyanin-enriched extracts of berries help protect the brain's microglia.
- Decreases cytotoxicity in microglia.
- Neurogenesis: promotes the growth of newly generated neurons!
Disease / Symptom Treatment
- Neurodegenerative Diseases:
- Age-induced cognitive decline:
- Alzheimer's Disease:
- Memory deficits: (impaired memory)
- Metabolic disorders:
- Type 2 Diabetes: Prevents Ameloydβeta fibrillation.
- Improves glucose regulation.
Title: Polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry attenuates cognitive decline and improves neuronal function in aged mice
Author(s): Julien Bensalem, Stéphanie Dudonné, David Gaudout, Laure Servant
Institution(s): Université de Bordeaux, Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux, France, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux, France, Activ'Inside, ZA du Grand Cazau, 33750 Beychac et Caillau, Région de Bordeaux, France, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec, Canada, OptiNutriBrain International Associated Laboratory (NutriNeuro France–INAF Canada), Université Laval, Faculté de Pharmacie, Québec, QC, Canada, Bordeaux INP, Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR1286, Bordeaux, France
Publication: Journal of Nutritional Science
Date: 21 May 2018
Abstract: Ageing is characterised by memory deficits, associated with brain plasticity impairment. Polyphenols from berries, such as flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and resveratrol, have been suggested to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study we assessed the preventive effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), with high concentrations of flavonoids, on age-related cognitive decline in mice. Adult and aged (6 weeks and 16 months) mice were fed a PEGB-enriched diet for 14 weeks. Learning and memory were assessed using the novel object recognition and Morris water maze tasks. Brain polyphenol content was evaluated with ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. Hippocampal neurotrophin expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, the effect of PEGB on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed by immunochemistry, counting the number of cells expressing doublecortin and the proportion of cells with dendritic prolongations. The combination of grape and blueberry polyphenols prevented age-induced learning and memory deficits. Moreover, it increased hippocampal nerve growth factor (Ngf) mRNA expression. Aged supplemented mice displayed a greater proportion of newly generated neurons with prolongations than control age-matched mice. Some of the polyphenols included in the extract were detected in the brain in the native form or as metabolites. Aged supplemented mice also displayed a better survival rate. These data suggest that PEGB may prevent age-induced cognitive decline. Possible mechanisms of action include a modulation of brain plasticity. Post-treatment detection of phenolic compounds in the brain suggests that polyphenols may act directly at the central level, while they can make an impact on mouse survival through a potential systemic effect.
Citations: ↩ ↩ ↩ ↩
Title: Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects
Author(s): Hang Ma 1,2,3,†Orcid, Shelby L. Johnson, Weixi Liu, Nicholas A. DaSilva, Susan Meschwitz, Joel A. Dain, and Navindra P. Seeram
Institution(s): School of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University; International Healthcare Innovation Institute (Jiangmen), Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong, China, Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, Department of Chemistry, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI 02840, USA
Publication: International Journal of Moleculary Science
Date: Feb 2018
Abstract: Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL) reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.