Acemannan, commercially known as Carrisyn, is the storage polysaccharide located within the protoplast of the parenchymatous cells of plants belonging to the aloe genus.[1] Acemannan is a polymer which is considered to be responsible for the large amount of water (approximately 99%) that can be retained within the aloe leaves.[1]

Several authors have associated most of the beneficial properties of Aloe vera gel to the acetylated polysaccharide acemannan present in the gel.

Healing Properties

  • Antiviral:[2]
  • Antineoplastic: Helps prevent, inhibit or halt the development of a neoplasm (a tumor).[3]
  • Bone Health: (Skeletal Health)
    • Osteogenic: promotes the functioning of osteogenesis (i.e. producing bone)
    • Bone Regeneration: Acemannan, a β-(1–4)-acetylated polymannose extracted from Aloe vera gel, has been proposed as biomaterial for bone regeneration.[3]
    • Acemannan is an effective bioactive agent for bone regeneration, enhancing bone growth as assayed in two- and three-dimensions.[3]
    • Treatment with Acemannan for calvarial (skullcap, or the upper part of the neurocranium which covers the cranial cavity containing the brain) defect healing showed a significant increase in bone surface and bone volume and tissue mineral density. The acemannan-treated groups also had a denser bone matrix.
  • Gastrointestinal properties:
  • Immunostimulant:
  • Oral Health:
    • Anti-aphthous activity: helps prevent/treat aphthous ulcers (small, shallow sores inside the mouth or at the base of the gums).[4]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

  • Diabetes: Acemannan is degraded by the intestinal microbiota to form oligosaccharides that inhibit intestinal glucose absorption, which has been associated to a significant reduction in blood glucose, blood pressure, and the improvement of the lipid profile in diabetic patients.[1]
  • Viral Infections: [2]
  • HIV:

Sources

  1. Title: Compositional and Structural Features of the Main Bioactive Polysaccharides Present in the Aloe vera Plant
    Author(s): Minjares-Fuentes R, Femenia A, Comas-Serra F, Rodríguez-González VM
    Institution(s): Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Artículo 123 s/n, Fracc. Filadelfia, 35010, Gómez Palacio, Durango, México; University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Ctra Valldemossa Km 7.5, 07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
    Publication: Journal of AOAC International
    Date: June 2018
    Abstract: Aloe vera (A. barbadensis Miller) is probably one of the most popular plants, widely studied because of numerous properties associated with the polysaccharides present in its gel. In particular, two main types of bioactive polysaccharides can be distinguished in the A. vera gel: an acetylated mannose-rich polymer that functions as storage polysaccharide, and a galacturonic acid–rich polymer as the main component comprising the cell walls of the parenchymatous tissue. Interestingly, most of the beneficial properties related to the aloe plant have been associated with the acetylated mannose-rich polysaccharide, also known as acemannan. However, the composition and structural features of these polysaccharides, as well as the beneficial properties associated with them, may be altered by different factors, such as the climate, soil, postharvest treatments, and processing. Further, different analytical methods have been used not only to identify but also to characterize the main polysaccharides found in parenchyma of A. vera leaf. Within this context, the main aim of this review is to summarize the most relevant information about the structural and compositional features of the main polysaccharides found in the A. vera gel as well as the most relevant analytical techniques used for their identification and their influence on the technological, functional, and beneficial properties related to the A. vera plant.
    Link: https://doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.18-0119
    Citations:

  2. Title: Enhancement of allo-resposiveness of human lymphocytes by acemannan (CarrisynTM)
    Author(s): Debra Womble, J. Harold Helderman
    Institution(s): Renal Immunology Laboratory, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, U.S.A.
    Publication: International Journal of Immunopharmacology
    Date: 8 November 2002
    Abstract: Healing powers have been imputed as being a feature of the gel from the aloe vera plant for centuries. The recent isolation of the active ingredient, acemannan, has made testing of this drug important. Since the drug appears to enhance monocyte function on other experiments, these studies were designed to test the capacity of acemannan to enhance immune response to alloantigen and to test whether the potential enhancement is a monocyte driven phenomenon. Acemannan did not enhance lymphocyte response to syngeneic antigens in the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) but importantly increased alloantigenic response in a dose - response fashion (2.6 × 10−7 − 2.6 × 10−9M). This effect of acemannan was shown to be a specific response and to concur with concentrations of in vitro acemannan achievable in vivo. A separate series of mixing experiments demonstrated that acemannan incubation with monocytes permitted monocyte driven signals to enhance T-cell response to lectin. It is concluded that acemannan, the active ingredient of the aloe vera plant, is an important immunoenhancer in that it increases lymphocyte response to alloantigen. It is suggested that the mechanism involves enhancement of monocyte release of IL-I under the aegis of alloantigen. This mechanism may explain in part the recently observed capacity of acemannan to abrogate viral infections in animal and man.
    Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(88)90043-4
    Citations:

  3. Title: Acemannan increased bone surface, bone volume, and bone density in a calvarial defect model in skeletally-mature rats
    Author(s): Dyna Jeanne D. Godoya, Jaroenporn Chokboribal, Ruben Pauwels, Wijit Banlunara, Polkit Sangvanich, Sukanya Jaroenporn, Pasutha Thunyakitpisal
    Institution(s): Dental Biomaterials Science Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand; OMFS-IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Biomedical Sciences Group, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Research Unit of Herbal Medicine, Biomaterial and Material for Dental Treatment, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Publication: Journal of Dental Sciences
    Date: July 2018
    Abstract: Abstract: Background/purpose: Acemannan, a β-(1–4)-acetylated polymannose extracted from Aloe vera gel, has been proposed as biomaterial for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acemannan in calvarial defect healing. Materials and methods: Acemannan was processed to freeze-dried sponge form and disinfected by UV irradiation. Thirty-five female Sprague–Dawley rats were used in the in vivo study. Seven-mm diameter mid-calvarial defects were created and randomly allocated into blood clot control (C), acemannan 1 mg (A1), 2 mg (A2), 4 mg (A4), and 8 mg (A8) groups (n = 7). After four weeks, the calvarial specimens were subjected to microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histopathological analysis. Results: MicroCT revealed a significant increase in bone surface and bone volume in the A1 and A2 groups, and tissue mineral density in the A4 and A8 groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Histologically, the acemannan-treated groups had denser bone matrix compared with the control group. Conclusion: Acemannan is an effective bioactive agent for bone regeneration, enhancing bone growth as assayed in two- and three-dimensions.
    Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2018.06.004
    Citations:

  4. Title: Medicinal plant and their bioactive phytochemicals in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers: A review of clinical trials
    Author(s): Fatemeh Heydarpour, Masoomeh Abasabadi, Zahra Shahpiri, Siavash Vaziri, Hesam Aldin Nazari, Fariba Najafi, Maryam Mirzaei, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei
    Institution(s): Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran; Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
    Publication: Pharmacognosy Reviews
    Date: May 2018
    Abstract: Considering the unclear etiology of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAUs), the clinical management of RAU is based on no optimal therapeutic approach. The current study aimed to review the clinical trials on the effectiveness of medicinal plants and their active phytochemicals in the treatment of RAU. Five databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library were searched for retrieving all the relevant clinical trials. The results indicate that a wide range of scientific evidence has approved the therapeutic benefits of natural medicaments in the management of RAU, including Satureja khuzistanica, Aloe vera, Myrrh, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Alchemilla vulgaris, Myrtus communis, Melissa officinalis, Rhizophora mangle, Chamomile, Rosa damascena, Nicotiana tabacum, Punica granatum, Ageratina pichinchensis, Norwegian LongoVital, Lavender oil, and Perilla oil that are known anti-aphthous medical plants. Berberine and acemannan are bioactive substances with diverse pharmacological and therapeutic benefits in patients with aphthous, which made them as the promising alternatives for new pharmacological drugs. This review provides evidence that medicinal plants can be considered as future pharmaceutical drugs or adjuvant treatment with conventional therapeutic approaches to improve their efficacy and alleviate the side effects in the management of RAU. Further clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of plant-derived natural products with potential effects in treating RAU.
    Link: http://www.phcogrev.com/text.asp?2018/12/23/27/232194
    Citations: